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Status Review Of Indonesian Marine Ornamental Fish Trade

Sustainability of diverse marine ornamental fish has been threatened lately by unresponsible practice of explosive and poison fishing by Indonesia fishermen. And even the national newspapers, radio, TV, the Indonesia government reissued a decree reminding that fishing with explosives and poison is illegal, it is still widely practiced until now.


Indonesia is the world's largest coral reef nation, with over 50.000 square kilometers of reefs (18 percen of the world total) extending nearly 5.000 kilometers from east to west, and harboring over 17.000 islands. Indonesia 's tropical coral reefs are inarguably amongst the richest environment on Earth, rivaling the tropical rainforests in biodiversity. About some 4000 species of fishes are believed to live on the world's coral reef. It touches on both the Indian and Pacific oceans as many seas, including the Andaman, Java, South China, Sulawesi, Banda and Arafura Seas. This same country has a vast array of coral reefs, many poorly described or completely unknown, while it completely straddles the region with the greatest reef biodiversity in the world. For the purposes of this account the physical and biological description are subdivided into a number of geographic sub units, while human and socio-economic issues are considered together for the entrire country ( 2001).

Sustainability of diverse marine ornamental fish has been threatened lately by unresponsible practice of explosive and poison fishing by Indonesia fishermen. And even the national newspapers, radio, TV, the Indonesia government reissued a decree reminding that fishing with explosives and poison is illegal, it is still widely practiced until now.

Developing Stories Trade of Marine Ornamental Fish in Indonesia

Since the introduction of the Aquarium from naturalist England Hendry Goose at 1953, marine ornamental fish has become favorite after that time and after World War II and human think about trading (Bonti-Bonti 1980). Long time ago Ornamental fish were sent with porcelain jug (Guci) and transported by cargo. At that time it took several weeks for transportation that caused high mortality. In Europe they used trains for transporting ornamental fish to another countries. They used cans for the packaging but the mortality was still high. At the time the center of Trading was Germany. After World War II stock and market center were moved to Singapore (Bonti-Bonti 1980). And the technic has increased to Packing technical, with the invention of the plastic material Ornamental fishes were packed in plastic and filled with oxygen. For transportation they used Plan, which caused the plan become speed and low mortality risk.

Ornamental fish Indonesia Club was established in the 1960, but the instability situation in Indonesia at that time dispersed the club. At 6 June 1976 Aquarist Society of Indonesia (ASI) was formed with D. Ashari (secretary jendral ministry of Foreign Affairs) as the chairman, Ir. A. Dwiponggo (vice chaiman), Ir. Juni M. Jarman (Secretaries), Hamingkubuwono IX and Tojib Hadiwijaya (Ministry of Agriculture), Letjen H. Ali Sadikin as the advisors (Bonti-bonti 1976). Trade of marine ornamental fish is increasing now because increasing the demand from local consumer and international consumer like Singapore, France, Japan, USA etc. On 1972 it was very difficult to get marine fish at Jakarta. Collecting marine fish was impossible to success as Digdo Yuwono's experience when he tried to build ornamental marine fishes collector farm. Even Digdo Yuwono was laughed by others. But he got success and know how to care ornamental fish.

Lately, the quantity of ornamental fish trade more less 280 species (DKP, IMA dan Telapak 2001), 367 species (NAFED 2002), 622 species (CV. Pacific Bali 2001). Ornamental fish trading is centered in Jakarta and Bali, mainly for export. This is especially because of the availability of direct flights to destination countries in North America and Europe. Ornamental fish are exported through Ngurah Rai airport, Soekarno-Hatta airport. Besides the two cities mentioned above, there are 3 other export gates with smaller export volume, which are Solo, Medan and Makasar. The exports from Solo and Medan transit in Singapore, while the export from Makasar is carried through Bali (DKP, IMA dan Telapak 2001). For local market, the biggest trading center for ornamental fish are in Jalan Sumenep-Central Jakarta, Pasar Minggu-Jalan Sumenep, Jalan Barito (Blok M), jalan MT. Haryono (front of Hero Mall), and many others. The local market is oriented more for the supply for aquariums in stared-hotels, shopping centers, office buildings and the private collection of the upper class. The lower class is less interested in this type of fish due to the difficulties in maintenance and regular supply of seawater that make them costly. Several traders from Jalan Sumenep admitted that the types of ornamental fish sold to the local market are lower in quality compared to those for export. Powder blue tang and emperor angelfish receive the least interest due to their high price.



Fishing gear of Marine Ornament Fish Indonesia

Bubu trap, barrier net, scoopnet and fishing line are variety of fishing gears that have been used by fishermen since long time ago, but lately these gears have been forgotten replaced by the use of blast fishing; cyanide fishing, muroami and trawling which are easy to operation and harvest more fish.

a. Bubu trap

Bubu trap is traditional tool made from bamboo, rotan trap, and nowaday use the wire, locally known as bubu, is widespread throughout Indonesia reefs fish. As described above, this gear is experiencing a resurgence of popularity due to its use in the live reef food trade. Bubu trap is left under sea for 12 hour (evening) and in the morning the trapped fish are collected. Fishermen at Sumatra, java, Sulawesi and Papua are very experienced to operate this.

b. Barrier net

The fishermen use barrier net which combines with scoop net to keep marine ornamental fish together. Barrier net is commonly used to catch the fish swimming in the surface, so the fish can't swim away and enable them to be captured by scoopnet.

c. Cyanide (Potassium)

Cyanide (Potash) causes low tenacity on the captured fish. Around 80% of ornamental fish and 50% of food fish died in retainer and during transportation from the fishing areas to the buyers. The effort to eradicate potash by using fresh water or by giving antibiotics, such as tetra, does not help much. As a result, the players of the trading of live reef fish try to get more fish to fulfill the order. Capturing fish without the use of cyanide, though difficult, will result in having fish which stay alive longer, (with longer tenacity), a lower mortality rate, and at the end more profit is gained. Some consumers also prefer fish which are cyanide free. The marine ornamental fish which are free of cyanide have longer tenacity.

Price Structure of Marine Ornamental fish Indonesia

Reef fisheries trade in Indonesia for ornamental fish is delivered to the collectors, who usually are the owners who provide loan to the fishermen, for operational cost of the ship, including for gasoline, food, etc. The fishermen then return the loan by delivering their capture to the collectors. The flow continues until the fish arrive at the exporters. It is believed that within the capital provided.

There are several systems for purchasing fish used by collectors or exporters. First, wholesale system in which collectors or exporters purchase all types of fish captured, regardless of their species or conditions. Second, order system, in which collectors or exporters have placed their order on specific species of ornamental fish. The first system would sometimes cause the collectors or the exporters to try to sell all goods quickly, to avoid them being in retainer for a long period of time, that could cause them to die. There are also fish that are not sold well in the local market.

In the reef fish each businessman is responsible for the costs of manpower, handling and transportation, profit, tax and levies, and the risk of having dead fish. There are 2 types of tax levies, formal and informal. Formal levy is in the form of export tax and in arranging of export document such as for quarantine. The informal levy is varied and usually depends on the origin, the destination and the transportation system that is used. Included in informal levy is security and ‚bribery. Besides the possibility of huge profit margin for the exporters, the above mentioned components cause a significant difference between the prices given by the fishermen and those by exporters for ornamental fish. The difference can reach 900%. As an example, emperor angelfish (Pomacanthus imperator) which is sold for Rp 25,000,-/fish by the fishermen to the collectors, can be exported for US$ 25.00/fish. Even in the local trader level, the difference of price can reach up to 300% (DKP, IMA and Telapak 2001). AT 1997 the potential Ornamental fish in Europe recorded USD 600 million and with population more or less 367 million and family population 92 millon. From family population more or less 2,7 million family the hobbies took Aquarium (Bonti-Bonti 1980).

Supplier and Exporter Marine Ornamental Fish in Indonesia

According to NAFED (2002) there are 40 exporters of marine ornamental fish. In Bali only 22 exporters are legal, while others are illegal and usually don't not own farm and use cargo to export (Arsonetri 2001). Indonesia Corals, Shells, and Ornamental Fish Association (AKKII) was established at August 1 1990 and is the most active exporter association in the country. Mrs. Ir.Yuni Yarman is General Chairman, Mr. Wesen D. Wirawan as Chairman I (Eksporter Golden Marindo), Mr. Suyatno as Chairman II (Ministry of Industry and Trade Staff) and Mr. Indra Wijaya for Executive Manager (NAFED 2002). Within this framework, AKKI and its members are committed to the principle of sustainable utilization of what is available.

At the same time, it also acknowledges that the existence of such resources should be useful. Indonesia Ornamental fish export 1991-1997 always increase in volume and value, The volume average 13,1% per year, which values 0,6 increases with 1991 the value become 7,813 million USD and 1997 was 9,971 million USD. This data is different with statistic biro center. Three years later Indonesians ornamental fish export was fluctuative. Sometime it's low and high. For example in 1997, the value was 3,16 million USD but in 1998 was lowered became 1,48 million USD, an in 1999 become higher again 11,40 million USD (Suara Pembaruan 1998).

According to BPEN chairman, Indonesia ornamental fish export have done 52 country market in the world. The major market countries to export are USA, Germany, England, France, Singapore, Hong Kong, Holland, Belgium, Spain, Italia, Sweden, Norwegian, Malaysia, Denmark and Souht Korea.

Development of Certification Marine Ornamental Fish System

Several meetings and national seminars in Jakarta, Bali and socialists from WWF Indonesia, TERANGI (Indonesia Coral Reef foundation) and Ministry of Industry and Trade The Republic of Indonesia, to the Fishermen, Collector and Exporter show strong power to improve the management healthy Coral reefs as habitat Marine Ornament Fish.

The Marine Aquarium Council (MAC) is an international not-for-profit organization working to ensure sustainability of the marine ornamental trade and quality within the marine aquarium industry.

The MAC Network of conservation groups, hobbiests, aquarium industry representatives, government agencies and public aquariums includes more than 2,500 individuals in more than 60 countries-and is growing. In Indonesia MAC has also cooperation at Indonesia with NGOs (Terangi, Telapak, YBN, and WWF Indonesia) Indonesia Government, Fishermen, Company and AKKI (Exporters) for implementing its mission establishing an independent certification process for those in the industry that meet best practice standards.

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Indonesia adalah negara kepulauan terbesar di dunia, terdiri dari lebih 17.000 buah pulau besar dan kecil, dengan panjang garis pantai mencapai hampir 81.000 km yang dilindungi oleh ekosistem terumbu karang, ekosistem padang lamun dan ekosistem mangrove. Indonesia merupakan salah satu Negara terpenting di dunia sebagai penyimpan keanekaeagaman hayati laut tertinggi. Di Indonesia terdapat 2,500 spesies of molluska, 2,000 spesies krustasea, 6 spesies penyu laut, 30 mamalia laut, dan lebih dari 2,500 spesies ikan laut.  Luas ekosistem terumbu karang Indonesia diperkirakan mencapai 75.000 km2 yaitu sekitar 12 sampai 15 persen dari luas terumbu karang dunia. Dengan ditemukannya 362 spesies scleractinia (karang batu) yang termasuk dalam 76 genera, Indonesia merupakan episenter dari sebaran karang batu dunia. Ekosistem pesisir (padang lamun, mangrove dan terumbu karang) memainkan peranan penting dalam industri wisata bahari, selain memberikan pelindungan pada kawasan pesisir dari hempasan ombak dan gerusan arus. Selain itu ekossistem pesisir ini merupakan tempat bertelur, membesar dan mencari makan dari beaneka ragam biota laut yang kesemuanya merupakan sumber produksi penting bagi masyarakat pesisir.

Di samping peranannya yang penting, ekosistem terumbu karang  Indonesia dipercaya sedang mengalami tekanan berat dari kegiatan penangkapan ikan dengan mempergunakan racun dan bahan peledak. Selain itu penangkapan berlebihan sedimentasi dan pencemaran juga merupakan ancaman yang tak kalah beratnya. Belakangan ini diperkirakan hamper 25 persen dari kehidupan di ekosistem terumbu karang telah mati, antara lain akibat dari peningkatan suhu mencapai sebesar 4ο C. Pada tahun 1994 LIPI mengadakan survei pada 371 buah station transek nasional dengan menggunakan prosedur standar pemantauan internasional. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa kondisi ekosistem terumbu karang Indonesia telah mengalami kerusakan yang sangat serius

Ekosistem terumbu karang adalah ekosistem yang mengandung sumber daya alam yang dapat memberi manfaat besar bagi manusia. Dari itu diperlukan kearifan manusia untuk mengelolanya, yang bisa menjadikan sumber daya alam ini menjamin kesejahteraan manusia sepanjang zaman. Tanpa menghiraukan masa depan dan terus-menerus merusak, ekosistem terumbu karang akan menjadi semacam padang gurun tandus di dalam laut yang hanya dipenuhi oleh patahan-patahan karang dan benda mati lainnya. Karena itu pengelolaan sangat diperlukan untuk mengatur aktivitas manusia serta mengurangi dan memantau cara-cara pemanfaatan yang merusak. Pengelolaan terumbu karang harus berbasis pada keterlibatan masyarakat, sebagai pengguna langsung sumber daya laut ini. Keterlibatan masyarakat dalam pengelolaan sumber daya terumbu karang sangat penting mulai dalam tahap perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pemantauan sampai pada tahap evaluasi dari suatu cara pengeloaan. Indonesia yang terletak di sepanjang katulistiwa, mempunyai terumbu karang terluas di dunia tersebar mulai dari Aceh sampai Irian Jaya. Dengan jumlah penduduk 200 juta jiwa, yang 60 persennya tinggal di daerah pesisir, maka terumbu karang merupakan tumpuan sumber penghudupan utama.

Di samping sebagai sumber perikanan, terumbu karang memberikan penghasilan antara lain industri ikan hias sampai pada tingkat nelayan pengumpul. Terumbu juga merupakan sumber devisa bagi negara, termasuk usaha pariwisata yang dikelolah oleh masyarakat nelayan.

Sayangnya terumbu karang di Indonesia semakin memburuk kondisinya, yang secara langsung dapat dibuktikan dari hasil tangkapan ikan oleh nelayan yang semakin menurun. Selain jumlah hasil tangkapan ikan semakin menurun, juga ukuran ikannya semakin kecil disamping itu nelayan memerlukan waktu yang lebih lama untuk mencari ikan. Peningkatan jumlah penduduk dan pembangunan di daerah pesisir yang semakin meluas, menyebabkan meningkatnya tekanan terhadap ekosistem terumbu karang.

Sumber : Coremap Edit Text

Kondisi Terumbu Karang Indonesia Turun 90 Persen

Kondisi terumbu Karang Indonesia mengalami penurunan drastis hingga 90% dalam lima puluh tahun terakhir akibat penangkapan dalam lima puluh tahun terakhir akibat penangkapan ikan yang tidak ramah lingkungan.


Menurut Adricor program Kelautan dariYayasan Terumbu Karang Indonesia (Terangi), Dr Jan Henning Steffen, akibat kerusakan terumbu karang tersebut, Bali telah menghabiskan satu juta dolar AS selama beberapa tahun untuk usaha-usaha perlindungan sejauh 500 meter garis pantai.

?Selain penangkapan ikan yang berlebihan, sedimentasi dan polusi dari daratan, penambangan karang, juga merupakan penyebab utama terumbu karang Indonesia menjadi rusak,? katanya.

Sementara itu, fungsi terumbu karang secara ekologis adalah sebagai daerah asuhan dan habitat berbagai biota serta sebagai fungsi perlindungan pulau dari badai. Secara ekonomis terumbu karang juga berfungsi sebagai sumber perikanan, sumber obat, pariwisata dan ornamen aquarium.

Ia menyebutkan, luas total terumbu karang Indonesia yang mencapai 85200 Km persegi terluas ke dua di duia setelah Great Barrier Reef? itu tercatat 40 persen diantaranya berada dalam kondisi rusak, rusak sedang 24 persen dan sangat baik hanya enam persen.

Ia menambahkan, menurut data CITES, Indonesia merupakan eksporter karang hidup terbesar di dunia, tercatat 200 ribu buah selama tahun 1992 dan 800 ribu buah selama tahun 1999. Sumbangan produksi terumbu karang Indonesia di sektor perikanan tercatat 2,7 miliar dolar AS per tahun dan sektor pariwisata sebesar 600 juta dolar AS per tahun.

Ia mengatakan, walaupun pertumbuhan karang tergolong cepat, namun pengambilan karang dengan cara merusak mengakibatkan tidak tersedianya stok karang yang mencukupi permintaan apalagi karang yang diperdagangkan dalam jumlah besar.

?Meskipun kerusakan oleh perdagangan karang belum diteliti lebih dalam bukan berarti tidak perlu diantisipasi, namun demikian tetap diperlukan upaya pencegahan dengan menerapkan prosedur pemanfaatan yang benar, antara lain dengan menerapkan sertifikasi ekolabel,? katanya.

Menurut staf Sertiflkasi Marine WWF Indonesia, Fini Lovita, sistim sertifikasi ekolabel, yang merupakan mekanisme pasar bersifat sukarela ini berupa sistim informasi atas suatu produk yang dikelola secara ramah lingkungan, yang bertujuan antara lain mengurangi tingkat kematian dan kerusakan sumberdaya, meningkatkan kegiatan pengelolaan, harga jual di pasar duia dan memberikan kepastian berusaha dalam jangka panjang. Ia menambahkan, sistim sertifikasi ini perlu segera disosialisasikan sebelum rancangan drafnya dikeluarkan, yang pada akhirnya diharapkan melahirkan sertifikasi terakreditasi oleh lembaga akreditasi. (kbn)


Sumber : Tekhnologi Edisi 166 - Juli 2001

10 Jenis Karang Masuk Redlist

Untuk pertama kalinya, IUCN Redlist pada tahun 2007 memasukkan karang sebagai biota terancam punah. Sebanyak 10 jenis karang masuk ke daftar merah dengan dua diantaranya dianggap kritis dan satu dianggap rentan. Selain karang, Redlist juga memasukkan 74 jenis rumput laut, padahal sebelumnya, hanya terdapat satu jenis. Mengapa hal ini bisa terjadi? Apa pula konsekuensi di masa depan?

Jika kita melihat ke masa lalu, biota-biota dalam redlist didominasi oleh biota terrestrial. Hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari perbedaan jumlah jenis yang mencolok, dari 41.415 jenis hanya 1.453 jenis dari laut. Di masa depan, diharapkan bias seperti itu tidak akan terjadi lagi, karena telah ada usaha dalam bentuk Global Marine Species Assessment (GMSA) sebuah kerjasama antara IUCN Species Survival Commission and Conservation International. Hingga saat ini GMSA masih terfokus untuk melakukan penilaian global kondisi jenis-jenis karang pembangun terumbu.


Kesepuluh jenis karang yang masuk ke dalam redlist merupakan hasil awal dari GMSA. Yang menarik adalah ke sepuluh jenis karang tersebut adalah jenis-jenis endemik dari Kepulauan Galapagos, kawasan yang mengilhami ilmuwan legendaris Charles Darwin untuk menelurkan teori evolusi. Kawasan ini memiliki endemisitas tinggi yang diakibatkan oleh isolasi dan rezim iklim yang tidak lazim. Ketika pemanasan akibat El Nino terjadi, kawasan ini terkena dampak terbesarnya. Kegiatan perikanan sendiri telah menekan ekosistem lebih jauh dengan menghabiskan jenis predator kunci, yaitu lobster berduri, sehingga menyebabkan bulu babi menyebar dan mengancam komunitas makroalga di seluruh kepulauan. Oleh sebab itu, ancaman di kawasan ini menjadi sangat tinggi.


Pada penilaian awal saja GMSA telah menghasilkan banyak biota yang masuk daftar merah, bagaimana di masa depan? Jangan-jangan seluruh biota suatu saat nanti akan masuk ke daftar, sehingga kita tidak dapat menggunakan sumber daya? "Ketakutan itu tidak beralasan." ungkap Suzanne Livingstone, Program Officer dari GMSA. "Memang terjadi kesalah pahaman. Redlist dianggap hanya terdiri atas jenis-jenis yang terancam punah saja. Padahal Redlist akan mendata seluruh jenis biota yang ada walalupun tidak terancam. Jenis-jenis yang tidak terancam dapat dikategorikan sebagai Belum Perlu Diperhatikan, Mendekati Terancam, atau Kurang Data. Diharapkan, kita bisa melihat gambaran umum ancaman terhadap beragam biota di bumi." ia menerangkan lebih lanjut.


Oleh sebab itu, GMSA sendiri mentargetkan untuk memasukkan 20.000 jenis biota laut ke dalam Redlist pada tahun 2012. Hasil dari Galapagos adalah hasil awal. Penilaian status konservasi karang sedang dilakukan di Karibia dan Indo-Pasifik, dan hasilnya akan dimunculkan pada Redlist 2008. Jadi penasaran, bagaimana status konservasi karang di Indonesia? Jangan-jangan jauh lebih banyak dari pada di Galapagos???

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